Osseous surgery is one of the most common periodontal procedures to treat severe gum disease. When it is determined that deep cleaning or other types of nonsurgical means have not been effective in treating the gum disease, this procedure may be recommended. When appropriately planned, osseous surgery can be the definitve treatment method for restoring periodontal health. The surgical access prepared in this procedure allows for a thorough debridement of the inflamed and infected tissues. The roots are also cleaned thoroughly and smoothed. This treatment can result in a much more even and natural physiological space between the hard and soft tissues, and decreases pocket depths. Not only does osseous surgery restore periodontal health, but it also improves the access for oral hygiene and periodontal maintenance for long term success.